565_大学生方程式赛车设计(制动与行走系统设计).rar

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编号:23802678    类型:共享资源    大小:8.84MB    格式:RAR    上传时间:2024-05-14
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Acta Astronautica 65(2009) Propulsion Solide,SAFRAN Group,Le Haillan,FrancebCNES,Evry,FranceReceived 22 December 2006;accepted 13 January 2009Available online 4 March 2009AbstractExperimental re-entry demonstrators are currently being developed in Europe,with the objective of increasing the technologyreadiness level(TRL)of technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles.Among these are the Pre-X programme,currently funded by CNES,the French Space Agency,and which is about to enter into development phase B,and the IXV,within the future launcher preparatory programme(FLPP)funded by ESA.One of the major technologies necessary for suchvehicles is the thermal protection system(TPS),and in particular the ceramic matrix composites(CMC)based windward TPS.In support of this goal,technology maturation activities named“generic shingle”were initiated beginning of 2003 by SPS,under a CNES contract,with the objective of performing a test campaign of a complete shingle of generic design,in preparationof the development of a re-entry experimental vehicle decided in Europe.The activities performed to date include:the design,manufacturing of two C/SiC panels,finite element model(FEM)calculation of the design,testing of technological samplesextracted from a dedicated panel,mechanical pressure testing of a panel,and a complete study of the attachment system.Additionaltesting is currently under preparation on the panel equipped with its insulation,seal,attachment device,and representative portionof cold structure,to further assess its behaviour in environments relevant to its applicationThe paper will present the activities that will have been performed in 2006 on the prediction and preparation of these modalcharacterization,dynamic,acoustic as well as thermal and thermo-mechanical tests.Results of these tests will be presented and the lessons learned will be discussed.2009 Elsevier Ltd.All rights reserved.Abbreviations:C/SiC,carbonsilicon carbide composite;CMC,ceramic matrix composites;FEM,finite element model;HMS,health monitoring system;FLPP,future launcher preparatory progra-mme;MMOD,micro-meteoroids and orbital debris;NDT,non-destructive testing;RCC,reinforced carbon/carbon;RLV,reusablelaunch vehicle;R&T,research&technology;TRL,technologyreadiness level;TPS,thermal protection systemCorresponding author.E-mail address:thierry.pichonsnecma.fr(T.Pichon).0094-5765/$-see front matter 2009 Elsevier Ltd.All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2009.01.0351.Shingle demonstration objectivesDuring the Pre-X preliminary study in 20012002,Snecma Propulsion Solide,entrusted with the respon-sibility of the high thermally loaded area of the wind-ward side of Pre-X,proposed to design and provide theTPS using C/SiC based shingles.The use of large sizeshingles has been given particular attention.In order to reduce the risks,a preparatory programmecalled“generic shingle”was initiated by CNES.It is166T.Pichon et al./Acta Astronautica 65(2009)165176External Aerodynamic shapeStructure shape Mechanical shellStand-offInternal InsulationFastenerSealInsulating WasherFig.1.TPS shingle concept.basedonthedesign,manufacturingandtestingofalargeshingle element.The main goal of this programme isto demonstrate the applicability of the improved tech-nology to all the C/SiC shingle elements foreseen forthe windward side of experimental re-entry vehicles.Tosupport this demonstration,the following activities havebeen performed:design of the panel and attachments,analytical validations of the design,manufacturing of a complete large shingle,technological tests of the C/SiC panels particulari-ties,pressure and vibration test(sine,random,and acous-tic)of the C/SiC panel,thermal testing,and thermo-mechanical testing.2.Shingle concept descriptionThis concept also called“shingle”is divided into twosets of elements:theoneswithmechanicalfunctions(mechanicalshell,fasteners,and stand-offs)and the ones with thermal functions(inner insulation lay-ers,seals,and insulating washers).This is represented by Fig.1.The material needed for the mechanical shell hasto be mechanically very efficient,and resist to highlyconstrained thermal environment;but its thermal con-ductivity characteristics are not the most important.Theinternal insulation and seals,not needing high mechani-cal properties,can be composed of low weight,flexible,and high performance insulating materials.The attach-ment system of the panel to the airframe structure mustresist to relatively high temperatures,enable the thermalFig.2.Aerodynamic external shape of the panel of generic shingle.0501001502002503000100200300400500600700800900100011001200time(s)Flux(kW/m2)Fig.3.Pre-X generic shingle reference flux.expansion of the panel,and transmit out-of-plane me-chanical loads between the panel and the cold structure.3.Main shingle requirementsThe panel is to be manufactured with the same gen-eral requirements,same C/SiC material and same pro-cess as the ones foreseen for the Pre-X windward sideshingles.As
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